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Blood pressure

This photo shows a nurse taking a woman’s blood pressure with a blood pressure cuff. The nurse is pumping the cuff with her right hand and holding a stethoscope on the patient’s arm with her left hand.
A proficiency in anatomy and physiology is fundamental to any career in the health professions. (credit: Bryan Mason/flickr)

Chapter objectives

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Distinguish between anatomy and physiology, and identify several branches of each
  • Describe the structure of the body, from simplest to most complex, in terms of the six levels of organization
  • Identify the functional characteristics of human life
  • Identify the four requirements for human survival
  • Define homeostasis and explain its importance to normal human functioning
  • Use appropriate anatomical terminology to identify key body structures, body regions, and directions in the body
  • Compare and contrast at least four medical imagining techniques in terms of their function and use in medicine

Though you may approach a course in anatomy and physiology strictly as a requirement for your field of study, the knowledge you gain in this course will serve you well in many aspects of your life. An understanding of anatomy and physiology is not only fundamental to any career in the health professions, but it can also benefit your own health. Familiarity with the human body can help you make healthful choices and prompt you to take appropriate action when signs of illness arise. Your knowledge in this field will help you understand news about nutrition, medications, medical devices, and procedures and help you understand genetic or infectious diseases. At some point, everyone will have a problem with some aspect of his or her body and your knowledge can help you to be a better parent, spouse, partner, friend, colleague, or caregiver.

This chapter begins with an overview of anatomy and physiology and a preview of the body regions and functions. It then covers the characteristics of life and how the body works to maintain stable conditions. It introduces a set of standard terms for body structures and for planes and positions in the body that will serve as a foundation for more comprehensive information covered later in the text. It ends with examples of medical imaging used to see inside the living body.

Test PDF eBook: 
A&P Final
Download Anatomy & Physiology Test PDF eBook
61 Pages
2014
English US
Educational Materials



Sample Questions from the A&P Final Test

Question: A fascicle is a

Choices:

muscle

bundle of muscle fibers enclosed by a connective tissue sheath

bundle of myofibrils

group of myofilaments

Question: Contraction elicited by a single brief stimulus is called

Choices:

twitch

wave summation

multiple motor unit summation

fused tetanus

Question: The sites where the motor nerve impulse is transmitted from the nerve endings to the skeletal muscle cell membranes are

Choices:

neuromuscular junctions

sacromeres

myofilaments

z discs

Question: Characteristics of isometric contractions include all but

Choices:

shortening

increased muscle tension throughout the contraction phase

absence of shortening

used in resistance training

Question: A smooth sustained contraction resulting from very rapid stimulation of the muscle, in which no evidence of relaxation is seen, is called

Choices:

twitch

wave summation

multiple motor unit summation

fused tetanus

Question: During muscle contraction, Which does not require that oxygen be available?

Choices:

A coupled reaction of creatine phosphate with ADP

Aerobic respiration of glucose

Anaerobic glycolysis

A coupled reaction of creatine phosphate with ADP & Anaerobic glycolysis

Aerobic respiration of glucose & A coupled reaction of creatine phosphate with ADP

Question: During muscle contraction, Which provides the highest yield of ATP per glucose molecule?

Choices:

A coupled reaction of creatine phosphate with ADP

Aerobic respiration of glucose

Anaerobic glycolysis

Question: The function of the T tubules in muscle contraction is to

Choices:

make and store glycogen

release Ca2+ into the cell interior an then pick it up again

transmit the action potential deep into the muscle cells

form proteins

Question: The connective tissue covering that encloses the sarcolemma of an individual muscle fiber is called the

Choices:

epimysium

perimysium

endomysium

periosteum

Question: A myofilament that contains actin is

Choices:

thin

thick

Question: During muscle contraction, which provides ATP fastest?

Choices:

A coupled reaction of creatine phosphate with ADP

Aerobic respiration of glucose

Anaerobic glycolysis

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