# Symbols and their meanings

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This module defines symbols used throughout the Collaborative Statistics textbook.
Symbols and their meanings
Chapter (1st used) Symbol Spoken Meaning
Sampling and Data $\sqrt{}$ The square root of same
Sampling and Data $\pi$ Pi 3.14159… (a specific number)
Descriptive Statistics $\mathrm{Q1}$ Quartile one the first quartile
Descriptive Statistics $\mathrm{Q2}$ Quartile two the second quartile
Descriptive Statistics $\mathrm{Q3}$ Quartile three the third quartile
Descriptive Statistics $\mathrm{IQR}$ inter-quartile range Q3-Q1=IQR
Descriptive Statistics $\overline{x}$ x-bar sample mean
Descriptive Statistics $\mu$ mu population mean
Descriptive Statistics $s$ ${s}_{x}$ $\mathrm{sx}$ s sample standard deviation
Descriptive Statistics ${s}^{2}$ ${s}_{x}^{2}$ s-squared sample variance
Descriptive Statistics $\sigma$ ${\sigma }_{x}$ $\mathrm{\sigma x}$ sigma population standard deviation
Descriptive Statistics ${\sigma }^{2}$ ${\sigma }_{x}^{2}$ sigma-squared population variance
Descriptive Statistics $\Sigma$ capital sigma sum
Probability Topics $\left\{\right\}$ brackets set notation
Probability Topics $S$ S sample space
Probability Topics $A$ Event A event A
Probability Topics $P\left(A\right)$ probability of A probability of A occurring
Probability Topics $P\left(A\mid B\right)$ probability of A given B prob. of A occurring given B has occurred
Probability Topics $P\left(A\mathrm{or}B\right)$ prob. of A or B prob. of A or B or both occurring
Probability Topics $P\left(A\mathrm{and}B\right)$ prob. of A and B prob. of both A and B occurring (same time)
Probability Topics $\mathrm{A\text{'}}$ A-prime, complement of A complement of A, not A
Probability Topics $P\left(\mathrm{A\text{'}}\right)$ prob. of complement of A same
Probability Topics ${G}_{1}$ green on first pick same
Probability Topics $P\left({G}_{1}\right)$ prob. of green on first pick same
Discrete Random Variables $\mathrm{PDF}$ prob. distribution function same
Discrete Random Variables $X$ X the random variable X
Discrete Random Variables $\mathrm{X~}$ the distribution of X same
Discrete Random Variables $B$ binomial distribution same
Discrete Random Variables $G$ geometric distribution same
Discrete Random Variables $H$ hypergeometric dist. same
Discrete Random Variables $P$ Poisson dist. same
Discrete Random Variables $\lambda$ Lambda average of Poisson distribution
Discrete Random Variables $\ge$ greater than or equal to same
Discrete Random Variables $\le$ less than or equal to same
Discrete Random Variables $=$ equal to same
Discrete Random Variables $\ne$ not equal to same
Continuous Random Variables $f\left(x\right)$ f of x function of x
Continuous Random Variables $\mathrm{pdf}$ prob. density function same
Continuous Random Variables $U$ uniform distribution same
Continuous Random Variables $\mathrm{Exp}$ exponential distribution same
Continuous Random Variables $k$ k critical value
Continuous Random Variables $f\left(x\right)=$ f of x equals same
Continuous Random Variables $m$ m decay rate (for exp. dist.)
The Normal Distribution $N$ normal distribution same
The Normal Distribution $z$ z-score same
The Normal Distribution $Z$ standard normal dist. same
The Central Limit Theorem $\text{CLT}$ Central Limit Theorem same
The Central Limit Theorem $\overline{X}$ X-bar the random variable X-bar
The Central Limit Theorem ${\mu }_{x}$ mean of X the average of X
The Central Limit Theorem ${\mu }_{\overline{x}}$ mean of X-bar the average of X-bar
The Central Limit Theorem ${\sigma }_{x}$ standard deviation of X same
The Central Limit Theorem ${\sigma }_{\overline{x}}$ standard deviation of X-bar same
The Central Limit Theorem $\Sigma X$ sum of X same
The Central Limit Theorem $\Sigma x$ sum of x same
Confidence Intervals $\text{CL}$ confidence level same
Confidence Intervals $\text{CI}$ confidence interval same
Confidence Intervals $\text{EBM}$ error bound for a mean same
Confidence Intervals $\text{EBP}$ error bound for a proportion same
Confidence Intervals $t$ student-t distribution same
Confidence Intervals $\text{df}$ degrees of freedom same
Confidence Intervals ${t}_{\frac{\alpha }{2}}$ student-t with a/2 area in right tail same
Confidence Intervals $\mathrm{p\text{'}}$ $\stackrel{^}{p}$ p-prime; p-hat sample proportion of success
Confidence Intervals $\mathrm{q\text{'}}$ $\stackrel{^}{q}$ q-prime; q-hat sample proportion of failure
Hypothesis Testing ${H}_{0}$ H-naught, H-sub 0 null hypothesis
Hypothesis Testing ${H}_{a}$ H-a, H-sub a alternate hypothesis
Hypothesis Testing ${H}_{1}$ H-1, H-sub 1 alternate hypothesis
Hypothesis Testing $\alpha$ alpha probability of Type I error
Hypothesis Testing $\beta$ beta probability of Type II error
Hypothesis Testing $\overline{\mathrm{X1}}-\overline{\mathrm{X2}}$ X1-bar minus X2-bar difference in sample means
${\mu }_{1}-{\mu }_{2}$ mu-1 minus mu-2 difference in population means
$P{\text{'}}_{1}-P{\text{'}}_{2}$ P1-prime minus P2-prime difference in sample proportions
${p}_{1}-{p}_{2}$ p1 minus p2 difference in population proportions
Chi-Square Distribution ${Χ}^{2}$ Ky-square Chi-square
$O$ Observed Observed frequency
$E$ Expected Expected frequency
Linear Regression and Correlation $y=a+\mathrm{bx}$ y equals a plus b-x equation of a line
$\stackrel{^}{y}$ y-hat estimated value of y
$r$ correlation coefficient same
$\epsilon$ error same
$\mathrm{SSE}$ Sum of Squared Errors same
$1.9s$ 1.9 times s cut-off value for outliers
F-Distribution and ANOVA $F$ F-ratio F ratio

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complex perform
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Definition of economics according to karl Marx Thomas malthus Jeremy bentham David Ricardo J.K
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show that the set of all natural number form semi group under the composition of addition
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explain and give four Example hyperbolic function
_3_2_1
felecia
⅗ ⅔½
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The denominator of a certain fraction is 9 more than the numerator. If 6 is added to both terms of the fraction, the value of the fraction becomes 2/3. Find the original fraction. 2. The sum of the least and greatest of 3 consecutive integers is 60. What are the valu
1. x + 6 2 -------------- = _ x + 9 + 6 3 x + 6 3 ----------- x -- (cross multiply) x + 15 2 3(x + 6) = 2(x + 15) 3x + 18 = 2x + 30 (-2x from both) x + 18 = 30 (-18 from both) x = 12 Test: 12 + 6 18 2 -------------- = --- = --- 12 + 9 + 6 27 3
Pawel
2. (x) + (x + 2) = 60 2x + 2 = 60 2x = 58 x = 29 29, 30, & 31
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ok
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on number 2 question How did you got 2x +2
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combine like terms. x + x + 2 is same as 2x + 2
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2+2x=
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×/×+9+6/1
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Q2 x+(x+2)+(x+4)=60 3x+6=60 3x+6-6=60-6 3x=54 3x/3=54/3 x=18 :. The numbers are 18,20 and 22
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Mark and Don are planning to sell each of their marble collections at a garage sale. If Don has 1 more than 3 times the number of marbles Mark has, how many does each boy have to sell if the total number of marbles is 113?
Mark = x,. Don = 3x + 1 x + 3x + 1 = 113 4x = 112, x = 28 Mark = 28, Don = 85, 28 + 85 = 113
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x-2y+3z=-3 2x-y+z=7 -x+3y-z=6
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Solve for the first variable in one of the equations, then substitute the result into the other equation. Point For: (6111,4111,−411)(6111,4111,-411) Equation Form: x=6111,y=4111,z=−411x=6111,y=4111,z=-411
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(61/11,41/11,−4/11)
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x=61/11 y=41/11 z=−4/11 x=61/11 y=41/11 z=-4/11
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Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
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