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Introduction

Ion selective electrode (ISE) is an analytical technique used to determine the activity of ions in aqueous solution by measuring the electrical potential. ISE has many advantages compared to other techniques, including:

  1. It is relatively inexpensive and easy to operate.
  2. It has wide concentration measurement range.
  3. As it measure the activity, instead of concentration, it is particularly useful in biological/medical application.
  4. It is a real-time measurement, which means it can monitor the change of activity of ion with time.
  5. It can determine both positively and negatively charged ions.

Based on these advantages, ISE has wide variety of applications, which is reasonable considering the importance of measuring ion activity. For example, ISE finds its use in pollution monitoring in natural waters (CN - , F - , S - , Cl - , etc.), food processing (NO 3 - , NO 2 - in meat preservatives), Ca 2+ in dairy products, and K + in fruit juices, etc.

Measurement setup

Before focusing on how ISE works, it would be good to get an idea what ISE setup looks like and the component of the ISE instrument. [link] shows the basic components of ISE setup. It has an ion selective electrode, which allows measured ions to pass, but excludes the passage of the other ions. Within this ion selective electrode, there is an internal reference electrode ( [link] ), which is made of silver wire coated with solid silver chloride, embedded in concentrated potassium chloride solution (filling solution) saturated with silver chloride. This solution also contains the same ions as that to be measured. There is also a reference electrode similar to ion selective electrode, but there is no to-be-measured ion in the internal electrolyte and the selective membrane is replaced by porous frit, which allows the slow passage of the internal filling solution and forms the liquid junction with the external text solution. The ion selective electrode and reference electrode are connected by a milli-voltmeter. Measurment is accomplished simply by immersing the two electrodes in the same test solution.

Measurement setup of ISE.

Theory of how ise works

There are commonly more than one types of ions in solution. So how ISE manage to measure the concentration of certain ion in solution without being affected by other ions? This is done by applying a selective membrane at the ion selective electrode, which only allows the desired ion to go in and out. At equilibrium, there is potential difference existing between two sides of the membrane, and it is governed by the concentration of the tested solution described by Nernst equation EQ, where E is potential, E 0 is a constant characteristic of a particular ISE, R is the gas constant (8.314 J/K.mol), T is the temperature (in K), n is the charge of the ion and F is Faraday constant (96,500 coulombs/mol). To make it relevant, the measured potential difference is proportional to the logarithm of ion concentration. Thus, the relationship between potential difference and ion concentration can be determined by measuring the potential of two solutions of already-known ion concentration and a plot based on the measured potential and logarithm of the ion concentration. Based on this plot, the ion concentration of an unknown solution can be known by measuring the potential and corresponding it to the plot.

Questions & Answers

who was the first nanotechnologist
Lizzy Reply
k
Veysel
technologist's thinker father is Richard Feynman but the literature first user scientist Nario Tagunichi.
Veysel
Norio Taniguchi
puvananathan
Interesting
Andr
I need help
Richard
anyone have book of Abdel Salam Hamdy Makhlouf book in pdf Fundamentals of Nanoparticles: Classifications, Synthesis
Naeem Reply
what happen with The nano material on The deep space.?
pedro Reply
It could change the whole space science.
puvananathan
the characteristics of nano materials can be studied by solving which equation?
sibaram Reply
plz answer fast
sibaram
synthesis of nano materials by chemical reaction taking place in aqueous solvents under high temperature and pressure is call?
sibaram
hydrothermal synthesis
ISHFAQ
how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
is this allso about nanoscale material
Almas
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
William
currently
William
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
STM - Scanning Tunneling Microscope.
puvananathan
how to find Rutherford scattering parameters angles
saksham Reply
advantages of NAA
Sai Reply
how I can reaction of mercury?
Sham Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Physical methods in chemistry and nano science. OpenStax CNX. May 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10699/1.21
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