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  • Define conductor and insulator, explain the difference, and give examples of each.
  • Describe three methods for charging an object.
  • Explain what happens to an electric force as you move farther from the source.
  • Define polarization.
This black power charging unit connects a laptop to an electrical outlet, allowing the laptop to be charged up.
This power adapter uses metal wires and connectors to conduct electricity from the wall socket to a laptop computer. The conducting wires allow electrons to move freely through the cables, which are shielded by rubber and plastic. These materials act as insulators that don’t allow electric charge to escape outward. (credit: Evan-Amos, Wikimedia Commons)

Some substances, such as metals and salty water, allow charges to move through them with relative ease. Some of the electrons in metals and similar conductors are not bound to individual atoms or sites in the material. These free electrons can move through the material much as air moves through loose sand. Any substance that has free electrons and allows charge to move relatively freely through it is called a conductor    . The moving electrons may collide with fixed atoms and molecules, losing some energy, but they can move in a conductor. Superconductors allow the movement of charge without any loss of energy. Salty water and other similar conducting materials contain free ions that can move through them. An ion is an atom or molecule having a positive or negative (nonzero) total charge. In other words, the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons.

Other substances, such as glass, do not allow charges to move through them. These are called insulators . Electrons and ions in insulators are bound in the structure and cannot move easily—as much as 10 23 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{"23"} } } {} times more slowly than in conductors. Pure water and dry table salt are insulators, for example, whereas molten salt and salty water are conductors.

In part a, an electroscope is shown. A glass rod with positive signs is close to the tip of the electroscope which has negative signs on it and the leaves have has plus signs on it. In part b, the glass rod with positive sign is in contact with the tip of electroscope having negative signs. The negative signs are shown moving to the rod by arrows pointing toward the rod. The surfaces of the leaves now have both positive and negative charge. In part c, the glass rod is absent. The tip and the leaves of the electroscope have both positive and negative signs on them.
An electroscope is a favorite instrument in physics demonstrations and student laboratories. It is typically made with gold foil leaves hung from a (conducting) metal stem and is insulated from the room air in a glass-walled container. (a) A positively charged glass rod is brought near the tip of the electroscope, attracting electrons to the top and leaving a net positive charge on the leaves. Like charges in the light flexible gold leaves repel, separating them. (b) When the rod is touched against the ball, electrons are attracted and transferred, reducing the net charge on the glass rod but leaving the electroscope positively charged. (c) The excess charges are evenly distributed in the stem and leaves of the electroscope once the glass rod is removed.

Charging by contact

[link] shows an electroscope being charged by touching it with a positively charged glass rod. Because the glass rod is an insulator, it must actually touch the electroscope to transfer charge to or from it. (Note that the extra positive charges reside on the surface of the glass rod as a result of rubbing it with silk before starting the experiment.) Since only electrons move in metals, we see that they are attracted to the top of the electroscope. There, some are transferred to the positive rod by touch, leaving the electroscope with a net positive charge.

Questions & Answers

Write short notes of the following 1.Laws 2.Theories
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To advance or to change from one level to another in the evolution chain
Explain why a building made of bricks has smaller entropy than the same bricks in a disorganized pile. Do this by considering the number of ways that each could be formed (the number of microstates in each macrostate).
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The closeness of a measurement to the accepted value for a specific physical quantity is known as what ?
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If you dive into water, you reach greater depths than if you do a belly flop. Explain this difference in depth using the concept of conservation of energy. Explain this difference in depth 
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A mass of 10kg move with a volocity of 4mß.find it's kinetic energy
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m= 10
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Newton or kg. m/sec^2
v=sin(att/s) Prove please as dimension consistent or not
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what is physic and what are its branches
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Practice Key Terms 7

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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