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Such quantitative survey instruments for assessing organizational culture are readily available, e.g.,Kilmann and Saxton’s Culture Gap Survey (1991). However, these instruments tend to be superficial and are incapable of probing thedepth and uniqueness of an organization’s culture. As Rousseau (1990) commented, the uniqueness of each organization’s culture prevents outsiders from forming valid a priori questions. Schein(1984) further noted that using surveys to assess culture violates ethical research procedures in that it puts words into the mouths of respondents rather than captures their own words. Also, suchinstruments summarize and aggregate responses, possibly misrepresenting the respondents’true views.

Because organizational culture is a multi-layered phenomenon, different data gathering approaches maybe necessary to assess the various layers. Rousseau (1990) identified five basic layers of organizational culture, proceedingfrom the most superficial and observable to the most profound, yet least revealed or discussed. These layers were: (a) artifacts, (b)patterns of behavior, (c) behavioral norms, (d) values, and (e) fundamental assumptions. Connor and Lake (1988) discussed the sameconcepts but classified culture into three layers, rather than five.

At its shallowest levels, school culture is open to assessment by observation of behaviors and interactions,listening to stories, participating in rituals, and examining artifacts and written communications. To understand the sharedvalues, common understandings, and patterns of expectations, it is necessary to probe more deeply and into subconscious areas byexamining the authentic responses of organization members. Rousseau (1990) and Schein (1999) advocated the use of structured interviewsto gather these data. Schein noted that small group interviews are both more valid and efficient than individual interviews. However,to get at the deepest levels of shared culture, assumptions and beliefs, intensive individual interviews are probably the mostappropriate approach.

As with all qualitative research, it is essential that organizational leaders set aside their ownconceptions and values as they attempt to discern the shared values and beliefs of others in the organization (Rousseau, 1990; Schein,1999). However, the leader’s observations of behaviors and artifacts can legitimately provide the initial entry point thatleads to a deeper investigation of the underlying shared values, norms, beliefs, and assumptions.

With these definitions of organizational climate and culture and some insight into how to assess theseconstructs, the leader’s next challenge is to forecast how the school’s culture and climate will interact with the school improvement process. The section that follows explores variouspossible patterns of interaction.

Interaction of School Climate and Culture with the School Improvement Process

A school’s culture and climate can interact with the school improvement process in many ways and in all phasesof that improvement process. Figure 1 illustrates a typical school improvement process, which progresses from a planning phase toimplementation, and eventually to institutionalization of the desired changes. As Beach and Lindahl (2004b) discussed, inreality, school improvement processes are not as linear as diagrams such as Figure 1 suggest. However, the basic phases of the modeloffer a useful structure for examining potential interactions between the process and the school’s climate and culture.

Questions & Answers

who was the first nanotechnologist
Lizzy Reply
technologist's thinker father is Richard Feynman but the literature first user scientist Nario Tagunichi.
Norio Taniguchi
I need help
anyone have book of Abdel Salam Hamdy Makhlouf book in pdf Fundamentals of Nanoparticles: Classifications, Synthesis
Naeem Reply
what happen with The nano material on The deep space.?
pedro Reply
It could change the whole space science.
the characteristics of nano materials can be studied by solving which equation?
sibaram Reply
plz answer fast
synthesis of nano materials by chemical reaction taking place in aqueous solvents under high temperature and pressure is call?
hydrothermal synthesis
how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
is this allso about nanoscale material
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
STM - Scanning Tunneling Microscope.
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Source:  OpenStax, Organizational change in the field of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10402/1.2
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