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Natural sciences

Grade 9

Plants: structure, including genetics

Module 27

Plant organs: roots

Plants live and grow unobtrusively and we are often unaware of the marvels that are hidden within them. We need to take a closer look to understand how miraculously they function.

A plant consists basically of four kinds of organs: roots , stems , leaves and flowers.

Activity 1:

to identify the organs of a plant

[LO 2.2]

Assignment 1:

Complete the tables by supplying the missing information about the different organs.

Plant organ
Above ground/Underground
Main function

Activity: 2

To determine how the structure of a plant stem is related to the functions that it performs

[lo 1.2, 2.4]

Plant roots

Assignment 1:

Go to the garden or the school playing fields and collect one small example of each of four kinds of common plants. Choose weeds, if possible. Ensure that you remove the plant with its root system intact. Rinse off any soil and arrange the plants on a sheet of clean paper.

Do you observe any noticeable differences with regard to the root system?

If you are lucky your plant samples will have two different kinds of root system. Sketch the two main types of root system. Your educator will provide the necessary guidance.

The TWO types of root system are known as the ADVENTITIOUS ROOT SYSTEM and the TAP ROOT SYSTEM .

Plants that have a taproot system have a main root that grows deep into the soil. Most of the plants that survive for more than a year (perennials) have a taproot system. This type of root system can reach water that is far below the soil surface and can anchor the plant. High trees and shrubs and bushes need such root systems. They belong to the group DICOTYLEDONS . They develop from seeds that have two seed leaves or cotyledons, like the seed of the bean plant. Many dicotyledonous plants, of course, are also annuals, but they do have taproot systems.

Monocotyledons, e.g. grasses and maize plants, are annuals. As they grow for one season only, they do not need very deep root systems. They actually need a wide, shallow root system to absorb all the moisture that might reach the soil. MONOCOTYLEDONOUS plants have adventitious root systems and develop from seeds that have one cotyledon, e.g. a maize kernel.

A taproot system consists of one main root, the taproot, and lateral roots that grow from it.

An adventitious root system consists of equally sized roots that grow from the base of the stem and are called adventitious roots . These roots are not branched.

Assignment 2:

Provide the correct labels for the sketches of the two types of root systems.

1. Which type of root system would you find with petunias, which are annuals?

2. Why do petunias develop this type of root system?

3. Which type of root system would an oak tree have?

4. Why would a tree need this type of root system?

5. Do trees have adventitious roots? Provide an explanation for this.

6. Can lateral roots develop from adventitious roots? Explain your answer.

7. Explain the main functions of roots.

Assessment of Root systems

Were you able to distinguish different types of roots and apply your knowledge?

Questions & Answers

who was the first nanotechnologist
Lizzy Reply
technologist's thinker father is Richard Feynman but the literature first user scientist Nario Tagunichi.
Norio Taniguchi
I need help
anyone have book of Abdel Salam Hamdy Makhlouf book in pdf Fundamentals of Nanoparticles: Classifications, Synthesis
Naeem Reply
what happen with The nano material on The deep space.?
pedro Reply
It could change the whole space science.
the characteristics of nano materials can be studied by solving which equation?
sibaram Reply
plz answer fast
synthesis of nano materials by chemical reaction taking place in aqueous solvents under high temperature and pressure is call?
hydrothermal synthesis
how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
is this allso about nanoscale material
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
STM - Scanning Tunneling Microscope.
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Source:  OpenStax, Natural sciences grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11069/1.1
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