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In addition to universities, industry and government, capital to move a promising idea to a stage where industry canafford the applied research and development required for commercialization is vital. To this end, the National Science Foundation created programs in theearly 1990s for small businesses, providing funds for aspiring entrepreneurs to conduct “proof of concept” research that might lead large companies either tofund further research or to acquire the entrepreneurial firm.

Along the same lines, venture capital firms were identified as an important component of national innovation systems. Suchfirms support new companies during their early stages of development and provide vital financial and management experience. Almost unique to the United States,venture capital firms’ existence may be closely linked to the almost unique concept of risk in this country. An individual who fails in one business mayraise the necessary funds to start another—business failure is not seen as moral failure in the United States.

Mowery and Rosenberg also identified the U.S. research university system as an essential element in the national innovationsystem. David C. Mowery and Nathan Rosenberg, “The U.S. National Innovation System,” from Richard R. Nelson and NathanRosenberg, eds., National Innovation Systems: A Comparative Analysis (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), 29- 52. The American research university system is, by several measures, by far the best in the world. They also pointed to data demonstrating that smalland medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the United States develop more potentially innovative ideas than larger firms. They suggested that SMEs wouldcontinue to play a significant role in the U.S. national innovation system. In their article in the Nelson-Rosenberg collection, Hiroyuki Odagiri and Akira Goto ( op. cit. ) ignore university-industry research cooperation as important to Japan’s national innovation system, citing the importance of universities onlyas a source of skilled manpower. Yet beginning in 1996, the Japanese government embarked on a series of five-year Science and Technology Basic Plans which,among other things, took measures to encourage university-industry research cooperation. In 2004, universities became autonomous organizations, largelyunregulated by the government’s Ministry of Education— Monbukogausho , or MEXT—and permitted to compete on the basis of their own competitive niches.

Council on competitiveness

The Council on Competitiveness (CoC) was created in 1986 during a time when the United States appeared to be laggingbehind other nations—particularly Japan—in its ability to compete in a number of key industries. It consists of major company CEOs, labor leaders, universitypresidents, and the heads of the principal science and technology agencies of the federal government.

Even as the national innovation concept broadened the way research and development was conceived, so meetings of theCouncil on Competitiveness were considerably broader than conventional professional science society meetings, such as those of the American Associationfor the Advancement of Science and the American Physical Society. That is, CoC meetings involved other actors in the innovation process in addition toscientists and engineers.

Although established during the first Bush administration, the CoC did not become a recognized organization until well intothe Clinton administration, during which it held three notable conferences. The first was held on February 24, 1997, at the University of California, San Diego,and was billed as “California and the Future of American Innovation.” Jon Cohen, “U.S. Science Policy: All Start Group Prescribes Partnerships for R&D Woes,” Science (March 7, 1997), 1410-11. California Governor Pete Wilson participated, as did John Gibbons, the first ofClinton’s two science advisors, NSF Director Neal Lane (later Clinton’s second science advisor), Congressman George Brown (D-CA), Steven Schiff (R-NM), and theheads of several universities and corporations. Ibid. The two subsequent conferences took place in Atlanta on March 3 and in Indianapolis on April 1-2.

Questions & Answers

who was the first nanotechnologist
Lizzy Reply
technologist's thinker father is Richard Feynman but the literature first user scientist Nario Tagunichi.
Norio Taniguchi
I need help
anyone have book of Abdel Salam Hamdy Makhlouf book in pdf Fundamentals of Nanoparticles: Classifications, Synthesis
Naeem Reply
what happen with The nano material on The deep space.?
pedro Reply
It could change the whole space science.
the characteristics of nano materials can be studied by solving which equation?
sibaram Reply
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synthesis of nano materials by chemical reaction taking place in aqueous solvents under high temperature and pressure is call?
hydrothermal synthesis
how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
is this allso about nanoscale material
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
STM - Scanning Tunneling Microscope.
While the American heart association suggests that meditation might be used in conjunction with more traditional treatments as a way to manage hypertension
Beverly Reply
in a comparison of the stages of meiosis to the stage of mitosis, which stages are unique to meiosis and which stages have the same event in botg meiosis and mitosis
Leah Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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