<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

The far east

Back to The Indian Subcontinent: 200 to 101 B.C.

China and manchuria ("former" han dynasty continued)

At its peak the Han Empire under Wu-Ti was exceedingly prosperous, rivaling Rome both in size and wealth. The capital city Ch'ang-an had 250,000 in a total empire population of about 57,000,000. While the progress of mechanization was impeded in Greece and Rome by the number of available slaves, China had too many efficient coolies. (Ref. 260 ) We noted above that Wu-Ti expanded into the Tarim Basin in the west by defeating the Hsiung-nu and this pursuance continued even after Wu-Ti's death. In 51 B.C. the chieftain of the southern Huns came to Ch'ang-an to submit as an Han vassal, while the northern group continued to be chased far westward into Samarkand, there to be finally defeated by a five-pronged Han force in 36 B.C. But in China proper the economic controls lapsed and nepotism and cronyism resulted in the loss of the imperial family's power.

A type of national university had come into existence to prepare men for bureaucratic careers and by the end of the century the enrollment had reached 3,000. In the Han militia system all males registered for military service at 21 years of age and were eligible for service between the ages of 23 and 56 years. Allegedly every male was to have military service in his home county one month every year and one year of continuous service sometime in a guard unit, but soon a practice of paying poorer men to serve one's time became standard practice. In addition to using cowrie shells as currency, copper coins, later called sapekes by the Europeans, came into use. Both of these competed with salt and grain as a medium of exchange. (Ref. 260 ) In this century the Chinese drilled deep holes, presumably for water, in Szechwan and their drilling methods were copied centuries later in the United States. (Ref. 213 )

In early China the laws required punishments and torture that equaled that seen in Europe at a much later period. Death penalties were carried out by beheading or by chop- ping the offender in two at the waist. In cases of treason or some equally serious crime, all the offender's relatives might also be put to death. Lesser offenders might simply be mutilated by tattooing, amputation of nose or feet or castration. Imprisonment was rare, but hard labor on government construction was used for minor offenders. In Emperor Ch'eng's reign (32 - 7 B.C.) authority was delegated to his mother's family, the Wang clan. Ssu-me Ch'ien was a great Chinese historian of this era. (Ref. 8 , 101 )

In Manchuria a new state of Koguryo was founded in this century and soon also included northern Korea.


The Yayoishiki Culture continued into this century with rice culture appearing about 100 B.C. Animism and totemism, sex and ancestor worship satisfied the religious needs of these early Japanese. Out of the latter worship came the oldest official living religions of the nation - Shinto. This faith, called the Way of the Gods, took three forms; the domestic cult of family ancestors, the communal cult of clan ancestors and the state cult of the imperial line with its founding gods.

A Mongolian castaway group on Kyushu multiplied so rapidly as farmers that they took over all the arable land on the island and while some of the aborigines became serfs, others took to the hills from where they continued to raid the farmers for centuries. The new Kyushu community was organized as a loose confederacy of villages, each ruled by its own matriarch or fertility mother, and the woman leader of the most powerful town was called the "Sun Goddess". Early Chinese traders called her "Pime-ko", or "Hime-Ko", meaning "Sunshine Child". (Ref. 213 , 136 , 12 ) In an attempt to obtain more sea-food to feed the expanding population, a great ship-building effort was made in 81 B.C. (Ref. 222 )


Most of Korea was controlled by the Han Chinese at this time, but the northern portion was allied with Manchuria in the new state of Koguryo.

Southeast asia

Already controlling North Vietnam, the Chinese now added central Viet Nam to their territory which they were to maintain for centuries. No other significant changes occurred.

Forward to The Indian Subcontinent: 0 to A.D. 100

    Choose different region

  • Intro to Era
  • Africa
  • America
  • Central and Northern Asia
  • Europe
  • The Near East
  • Pacific

Questions & Answers

who was the first nanotechnologist
Lizzy Reply
technologist's thinker father is Richard Feynman but the literature first user scientist Nario Tagunichi.
Norio Taniguchi
I need help
anyone have book of Abdel Salam Hamdy Makhlouf book in pdf Fundamentals of Nanoparticles: Classifications, Synthesis
Naeem Reply
what happen with The nano material on The deep space.?
pedro Reply
It could change the whole space science.
the characteristics of nano materials can be studied by solving which equation?
sibaram Reply
plz answer fast
synthesis of nano materials by chemical reaction taking place in aqueous solvents under high temperature and pressure is call?
hydrothermal synthesis
how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
is this allso about nanoscale material
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
STM - Scanning Tunneling Microscope.
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get Jobilize Job Search Mobile App in your pocket Now!

Get it on Google Play Download on the App Store Now

Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'A comprehensive outline of world history' conversation and receive update notifications?