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School District Type.

There are three district types in Illinois: elementary, high school, and preK-12 unit districts. During the 2008-2009 Illinois school year, Illinois State Board of Education reported 378 elementary districts, 100 high school districts, and 390 unit districts with grade levels elementary through high school (Illinois State Board of Education, 2009, p. 3). The school board survey representation reflected these numbers: 46% elementary districts, 12% high school districts, and 41% unit districts.

The format for responses to the perceptions of motivations and challenges included four choices. Given a specific descriptor, respondents were asked to indicate if they perceived this descriptor to be 1) Typical of female board members ; 2) Typical of male board members ; 3) Equally typical of female and male board members ; or 4) Not typical of either female or male board members .

Motivations for Running for School Board.

School board members perceived their motivation in running for the board, which were typical of both male and female school board members, included the following in rank order: Advocacy for student achievement/accountability (89%); Ensuring taxpayers’ money was well spent (74%); Influencing a district’s educational policies (74%); Fulfill a civic responsibility (73%); Disgruntled with school and school district decisions (41%), Holding an elected office (31%); Advancing self-interest (23%); Developing a political presence (18%).

Challenges: Running for School Board.

Respondents perceived the challenges in running for school board positions, which were typical of both male and female school board members, included the following in rank order: Criticism from internal and external stakeholders (66%); High level of visibility (57%); Family demands and responsibilities (56%); Complacency of current school board (41%); Lack of financial support (41%); Lack of family support (25%); Lack of self-confidence (21%); Perceived gender bias (13%).

Challenges: Seated on Board.

Respondents perceived the challenges while seated on the board, which were typical of both male and female school board members, included the following in rank order: Increased visibility (80%); Criticism from internal and external stakeholders (77%); Uncertainty about one’s ability to be an effective board member (54%); Personal retribution and repercussions for family members (40%); Lack of support from the current superintendent (27%); Intimidation from other board members (21%); Lack of family support (20%).


Males continue to hold the majority of seats on school boards and the majority of superintendent positions in the state of Illinois; it should be noted that females are gaining ground in these positions. Among the boards in the current study, the majority of female respondents were most likely to be one of two female board members on their school board. The majority of participants were in the 40 to 49 age bracket. Even though a majority of board members have served in their positions less than seven years, it is interesting to note in this particular study, 43% have three years or less of school board experience which has tremendous implications for school board training and board development. Also, it is important that school board trainers understand the characteristics, attitudes, and values of this age group (40 to 49 years) and the implications this has for training and board development. The majority of board members are well-educated, having college and advanced degrees, lending themselves to intelligent decision-making and problem-solving abilities. Illinois has the third largest number of rural and small school districts in the country. The majority of respondents come from rural and small schools.

Questions & Answers

who was the first nanotechnologist
Lizzy Reply
technologist's thinker father is Richard Feynman but the literature first user scientist Nario Tagunichi.
Norio Taniguchi
I need help
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Naeem Reply
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hydrothermal synthesis
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nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
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Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
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Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
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yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
STM - Scanning Tunneling Microscope.
While the American heart association suggests that meditation might be used in conjunction with more traditional treatments as a way to manage hypertension
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review special issue: portland conference, volume 12, number 3 (october 2011). OpenStax CNX. Oct 17, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11362/1.5
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