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The linea alba    is a white, fibrous band that is made of the bilateral rectus sheaths    that join at the anterior midline of the body. These enclose the rectus abdominis    muscles (a pair of long, linear muscles, commonly called the “sit-up” muscles) that originate at the pubic crest and symphysis, and extend the length of the body’s trunk. Each muscle is segmented by three transverse bands of collagen fibers called the tendinous intersections    . This results in the look of “six-pack abs,” as each segment hypertrophies on individuals at the gym who do many sit-ups.

The posterior abdominal wall is formed by the lumbar vertebrae, parts of the ilia of the hip bones, psoas major and iliacus muscles, and quadratus lumborum    muscle. This part of the core plays a key role in stabilizing the rest of the body and maintaining posture.

Career connections

Physical therapists

Those who have a muscle or joint injury will most likely be sent to a physical therapist (PT) after seeing their regular doctor. PTs have a master’s degree or doctorate, and are highly trained experts in the mechanics of body movements. Many PTs also specialize in sports injuries.

If you injured your shoulder while you were kayaking, the first thing a physical therapist would do during your first visit is to assess the functionality of the joint. The range of motion of a particular joint refers to the normal movements the joint performs. The PT will ask you to abduct and adduct, circumduct, and flex and extend the arm. The PT will note the shoulder’s degree of function, and based on the assessment of the injury, will create an appropriate physical therapy plan.

The first step in physical therapy will probably be applying a heat pack to the injured site, which acts much like a warm-up to draw blood to the area, to enhance healing. You will be instructed to do a series of exercises to continue the therapy at home, followed by icing, to decrease inflammation and swelling, which will continue for several weeks. When physical therapy is complete, the PT will do an exit exam and send a detailed report on the improved range of motion and return of normal limb function to your doctor. Gradually, as the injury heals, the shoulder will begin to function correctly. A PT works closely with patients to help them get back to their normal level of physical activity.

Muscles of the thorax

The muscles of the chest serve to facilitate breathing by changing the size of the thoracic cavity ( [link] ). When you inhale, your chest rises because the cavity expands. Alternately, when you exhale, your chest falls because the thoracic cavity decreases in size.

Muscles of the Thorax
Movement Target Target motion direction Prime mover Origin Insertion
Inhalation; exhalation Thoracic cavity Compression; expansion Diaphragm Sternum; ribs 6–12; lumbar vertebrae Central tendon
Inhalation;exhalation Ribs Elevation (expands thoracic cavity) External intercostals Rib superior to each intercostal muscle Rib inferior to each intercostal muscle
Forced exhalation Ribs Movement along superior/inferior axis to bring ribs closer together Internal intercostals Rib inferior to each intercostal muscle Rib superior to each intercostal muscle

Questions & Answers

muscles of upper limb
SAMWEL Reply
pelvic has 2 Bones each Bone has two parts name the parts
Luchindo Reply
what and what
Sadiq
Femure
Lemlem
Inomenet bone
Jamila
describe the structure of an atom
Obulejo Reply
what is mitosis?
Obulejo
atom is made of protons, nuetran and elections, which is very particle cannot be destructive nor be creative,
KUSUMA
mitosis increase in size for separation new cell with its component including nucleus and it's content,
KUSUMA
what are the abdominal region
Sadiq
I love how people can ask questions and receive answers 👌 great course btw 🙏
Global Reply
yes I wud also like to much because we can know aboth each and every thing in a deciplinary manner
KUSUMA
explain endocrine system
JOY Reply
ductless gland, secretes hormone chemical substance which r very essential for the life activities of animals, humanbeings ,
KUSUMA
How many bones are in adult body
Godfried Reply
What produce blood in the body
Godfried
blood cell are made in the bone marrow, the bone marrow is the soft, spongy material in the center if the bones it produce about 95% of the body blood cell
Abeedarh
what is compound
Obulejo Reply
compound is the compose of many identical molecules
Daniella
what are the three layers of the heart
Florence Reply
pericardium myocardium endocardium
Clare
epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium
Ted
innermost layer is the endocardium. intermediate layer is the epicadium(also known as the visceral pericadium) outermost layer is the myocardium
Judith
how do the lymphatic release excess fluid to the blood stream
Chiamaka Reply
what is lymphatic
Chiamaka
it's a one way drainage system which drains excess water from the blood vessels to the heart
Lariza
Pls what is lymphatic
Williams
lymphatic is an organs system in vertebrate that is part of the circulatory system and the immune system
Abeedarh
importance of studying anataomy
Daud Reply
importance of anatomy
Daud
knowing how body structures look their colours shapes and adaptational characteristics
Robinson
what is serotonin
VINCE Reply
Serotonin is the key hormone that stabilizes our mood. It enables brain cells and other nervous system cells to communicate with each other.
Jose
thank you
Rukkaya
no problem :)
Jose
wat are the types of Epethelial tissue...?
Michael
name one experimental example illustrating osmosis
YAYAH
Simple Science Experiment: Osmosis with Potato Slices
long
dialysis of urin for the detoxification of blood from urial contents. is the good example for osmosis,
KUSUMA
what is Anatomy
Wisdom Reply
anatomy is a study of structure of the body and their physical relationship between is constituents part
Abeedarh
any with the diagram of the cross section of the heart
Annie
what IS epididymis
Dalouta Reply
définition of epididymis
Dalouta
what are the relative directional terms of the human body
Auwal
A branch of biology that deals with the functions and activities of life or of living matter (as organs, tissues, or cells) and of the physical and chemical phenomena involved.
MOCRIF Reply
what IS a cause of le prosy
Dalouta
anatomy is the scientific study of the structures of the human body
Chioma Reply
it is the study of anatomy as seen by the naked eyes
Chioma
This is the study of the structures of the body with the use of a microscope or an magnitude
Chioma
Is the study of the relationship among the structures of the body
Chioma
Is the joining of two or more structures of the bone to form a healthy body
Chioma

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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