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In addition to the 2 molecules of ATP and NADH the cells gain a series of small intermediates or precursors that are necessary for the construction of monomers which in turn are used to build polymers. These precursors include: Glucose-6-phosphate, Fructose-6-phosphate, Triose-phosphate, 3-Phosphoglycerate, Phosphoenolpyruvate, and Pyruvate . These substrates are the building blocks to form monomers that lead to a variety of biopolymers including including proteins (monomer: amino acids) and polysaccharides.

The net result of glycolysis: 2 pyruvates, 2 NADH and 2 ATP. the other important point is that this is an anaerobic    process. There is no requirement for molecular oxygen in glycolysis. This process occurs in the cytosol or cytoplasm of cells. For a short (3 minute) overview YouTube video of glycolysis click here .

Glycolysis: the oxidation of glucose to pyruvate

Glycolysis is the metabolic process of breaking down or oxidizing hexoses, or six carbon sugars, to two molecules of pyruvate, a three carbon keto acid. The importance of glycolysis is really two fold, first is to generate small carbon compounds that the cell can use as building blocks construct other cellular components. Secondly, many cells, including mammals generate energy in form of ATP from glycolysis. Whhile not all cells generate energy from glycolysis, nearly all living organisms carry out glycolysis as part of their metabolism. The process does not use oxygen and is therefore anaerobic    . Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm of bacteral, archeal and eukaryotic cells. Remember that most biological processes are freely reversible, depending upon the needs of the cell. The reverse set of reactions to glycolysis, that is, the process of taking two molecules of pyruvate and reducing them to form one molecule of glucose is called gluconeogenesis . The balance between these two process keeps the flux of carbon (hexoses) sensitive to the needs of the cell.

While glycolysis begins with glucose being activated with the addition of a phosphate from ATP, many different types of hexoses (six carbon sugars) and polysaccharides (polymers of sugars) can feed into glycolysis at the point of glucose or glucose-6-phosphate. Many different hexoses, such as Galactose or Mannose, can be converted to glucose by a hexose isomerase , an enzyme that can rearrange the hydroxyl groups on the hexose and form glucose. Disaccharides (such as lactose, maltose or sucrose), trisaccharides (such as maltose triose) and polysaccharides (longer sugar polymers such as starch or glycogen) can be degraded by hydrolysis reactions to the monomers which can then be converted to glucose and enter glycolysis. The importance of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, and along with the TCA cycle is central to all cells for the production of compounds necessary to build the monomers for biopolymers. As a result, these pathways has been given the common name of " Central Metabolism ".

Glycolysis begins with the six carbon ring-shaped structure of a single glucose molecule and ends with two molecules of a three-carbon sugar called pyruvate    . Glycolysis consists of two distinct phases. The first part of the glycolysis pathway traps the glucose molecule in the cell and uses energy to modify it so that the six-carbon sugar molecule can be split evenly into the two three-carbon molecules. The second part of glycolysis extracts energy from the molecules and stores it in the form of ATP and NADH, the reduced form of NAD + .

Questions & Answers

who was the first nanotechnologist
Lizzy Reply
k
Veysel
technologist's thinker father is Richard Feynman but the literature first user scientist Nario Tagunichi.
Veysel
Norio Taniguchi
puvananathan
Interesting
Andr
I need help
Richard
anyone have book of Abdel Salam Hamdy Makhlouf book in pdf Fundamentals of Nanoparticles: Classifications, Synthesis
Naeem Reply
what happen with The nano material on The deep space.?
pedro Reply
It could change the whole space science.
puvananathan
the characteristics of nano materials can be studied by solving which equation?
sibaram Reply
plz answer fast
sibaram
synthesis of nano materials by chemical reaction taking place in aqueous solvents under high temperature and pressure is call?
sibaram
hydrothermal synthesis
ISHFAQ
how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
is this allso about nanoscale material
Almas
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
William
currently
William
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
STM - Scanning Tunneling Microscope.
puvananathan
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
what does post-translational control refer to?
Teresa Reply
Bioremediation includes
Rachel Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Ucd bis2a intro to biology v1.2. OpenStax CNX. Sep 22, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11890/1.1
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