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Listing 4 . Get an Iterator object.
Iterator iter = ref.iterator();

The call to the iterator method on any Collection object returns an instance of a class that implements the Iterator interface. The Iterator object can be used to traverse the collection, gaining access to each element in order. (The concept of in order means different things for different kinds of collections. For a collection instantiated fromthe TreeSet class, in order means in ascending order.)

Again, don't know, don't care

Again, the author of the method that uses the Collection object doesn't need to know or care about the internal implementation of thecollection, or the implementation of the methods of the Iterator object. They simply do what they do, and can be used for their intended purpose.

An Iterator object acts as a doorkeeper

The Iterator interface declares three methods:

  • hasNext()
  • next()
  • remove()

You might say that an Iterator object acts as a doorkeeper for the collection object that it represents, providing access to the contents of thecollection in a very specific manner.

Traverse the collection

The code fragment in Listing 5 below shows how the first two of the above methods can be used to

  • Traverse the collection, accessing each of the object's elements in succession.
  • Display the value encapsulated in the object referred to by each element.

As mentioned earlier, when the collection is an object instantiated from the TreeSet class, access to the elements is provided in ascending order.

Listing 5 . Traverse the collection.
while(iter.hasNext()){ System.out.print(iter.next());}//end while loop

Four elements with no duplicates

At this point, the TreeSet object contains four elements, with no duplicates. Each of the elements is a reference to an object of type Integer . The code in the loop in Listing 5 causes each of those elements to be accessed and displayed in ascending order. This causes the following text to appear on thescreen:


An editorial opinion

In my opinion, this is the kind of knowledge that a computer science student in a modern data structures course should be learning. This is a far departurefrom courses of the past where CS2 students were required to memorize the intricate details of how to implement various data structures.

What kind of knowledge is needed?

Does an architect need to understand the detailed inner workings of an air conditioning compressor to design a cooling system into a building? Ofcourse not!

However, the architect does need to know the tradeoffs among the available cooling systems in terms of initial cost, operating cost, size, efficiency, etc.

Does an audio technician need to understand the detailed inner workings of an electronic audio equalizer in order to construct an integrated audio system?Absolutely not! If that were a requirement, there would likely be very few audio systems in existence.

However, the audio technician does need to understand the tradeoffs among the various available audio equalizers.

The same concept applies to software design

Does an OOP software designer need to know the detailed inner workings of the various kinds of collection objects in order to use them effectively? No!

Questions & Answers

who was the first nanotechnologist
Lizzy Reply
technologist's thinker father is Richard Feynman but the literature first user scientist Nario Tagunichi.
Norio Taniguchi
I need help
anyone have book of Abdel Salam Hamdy Makhlouf book in pdf Fundamentals of Nanoparticles: Classifications, Synthesis
Naeem Reply
what happen with The nano material on The deep space.?
pedro Reply
It could change the whole space science.
the characteristics of nano materials can be studied by solving which equation?
sibaram Reply
plz answer fast
synthesis of nano materials by chemical reaction taking place in aqueous solvents under high temperature and pressure is call?
hydrothermal synthesis
how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
is this allso about nanoscale material
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
STM - Scanning Tunneling Microscope.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Object-oriented programming (oop) with java. OpenStax CNX. Jun 29, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11441/1.201
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