<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Glossary

  • Anti-predatory behavior – Behavior that either looks out for predator or seeks to avoid high predator density areas. Anti-predatory encompasses all behaviors in evaluating, avoiding, and fleeing predators.
  • Aggregation - A group of like individuals that acts a whole. Schools are aggregations because they are groups that, although made of individuals, act as a single unit while schooling.
  • Costs - Disadvantages of a behavior. Costs are reasons not to school, including increased visibility to predators or more competition. Especially if the benefits are not greater than the costs.
  • Competition - The interactions between individual for a specific resource. This is most common for spots within the school that are safest, but can also be for mates or food.
  • Density - The number of occupants per unit space. Used to describe closeness between fish in a school, a descriptive term of the school. Density can change within a school, and is often related to the speed the fish are swimming.
  • Experimentation - The best way to draw specific cause/effect relationships about behavior. Experiments often manipulate the environment or transplant individuals from one environment to another in order to isolate behavioral observations from the surroundings.
  • Fitness - The ability to propagate genes to the next generation. Fitness can be described by ability to get mates, avoid predators, and collect resources because all these behaviors increase either survival (to allow more reproduction) or reproduction opportunities themselves.
  • Foraging - The behavior of searching for and collecting resources, often used in terms of food. Fish forage by looking for areas with enough food for either themselves or an entire school.
  • Harrassment - The behavior of colliding, interfering, or otherwise disturbing another individual. Commonly seen by males against females in hopes of mating, however harassment disturbs the harassed individual and decreases their fitness by interfering with their anti-predatory or foraging efficiency.
  • Mechanics - Similar to dynamics, but focuses more on the physical scope of knowing where to swim and how to move. Mechanics are most often modeled by computer technology and conclusions drawn from these studies.
  • Membership - Being part of a school as an individual. This is not constant within a school and change depending on sex, age, or phenotype; membership of specific school can turnover completely while the school is still constant.
  • Mixed Schooling - Schooling between species, either on purpose or by accident. Mixed schooling is an aspect of schooling not well understood.
  • Observation - One of the most common ways of studying schools, primarily by watching schools in either their natural habitat or in tanks. Observation allows for patterns of behavior to be established but not for cause/effect conclusions to be determined definitively.
  • Plastic Behavior - Behavior that can change based upon environmental or other external cues. Schooling is a plastic behavior in most species as it only occurs when there is a need for it: when its benefits outweigh its costs.
  • Predation - Hunting for the purposes of eating; a form of foraging. Many schools are shaped evolutionarily by their interaction with predators, as they formed to avoid predation.
  • School - A group of fish that act as an aggregate, swimming together in unison and engaging in anti-predatory, foraging, or other behaviors.
  • Shoal - A group of fish that are found in close proximity but do not have the mechanics or dynamics that make a school. Shoals are collections of fish that do not act as one entity or aggregate.
  • Solitary - An individual who might school, but at a certain point of time is not part of a school. Solitary individuals offer a good comparison for how behaviors change in schools and what costs and benefits are obtained through schooling.
  • Stressor - An aspect of the environment that shapes evolution, ranging from predation to physical barriers. Stressors alter behavior, either at the individual level or of the species by selecting for advantageous behaviors.
  • School volume - The amount of space taken up by a school, either because of the number of individuals is larger or smaller or because the shape of the school changes in response to an environmental cue. Predation often changes the volume of school so that foraging can continue without being eaten by a predator.

Bibliography

  • Bakun, Andrew; Weeks, Scarla J. 2006. “Adverse feedback sequences in exploited marine systems: are deliberate interruptive actions warranted?” Fish and Fisheries. Vol. 7. Issue 4. 316-333.
  • Batty, R.S; Domenici, P. 1997. “Escape behaviour of solitary herring ( Clupea harengus ?) and comparisons with schooling individuals.” Marine Biology. Vol. 128, Num. 1. 1432-1793.
  • Beukers-Stewart, B. D; Jones, G.P. 2003. “The influence of prey abundance on the feeding ecology of two piscivorous species of coral reef fish.” Journal of Marine Biology and Ecology. Vol. 299, Issue 2. 155.
  • Bisazza, Angelo; Dadda, Marco; Pilastro, Andrea. 2007. “Male sexual harassment and female schooling behaviour in the eastern mosquitofish.” Animal Behaviour. Vol. 70, Issue 2. 463.
  • Bumann, Dirk; Krause, Jens; Todt, Dietman. 2004. “Relationship Between the Position Preference and Nutritional State of Individuals in Schools of Juvenile Roach (Rutilus Rutilus).” Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiolgy. Vol. 30. Num. 3-4.
  • Colgan, Patrick W; Kieffer, James D. 1992. “The role of learning in fish behavior.” Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries. Vol. 2, Num. 2. 1573-5184.
  • Corten, A. 2001. “The role of “conservatism” in herring migrations.” Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries. Vol. 11 Num. 4. 339-361.
  • Cucker, Felipe; Mordecki, Ernesto. 2008. “Flocking in noisy environments.” Journal de mathématiques pures et appliqués. Vol. 89, Issue 3. 278.
  • Edelstein-Keshet, Leah; Parrish, Julia K. 1999. “Complexity, Pattern, and Evolutionary Trade-Offs in Animal Aggregation.” Science. Vol. 284, Num. 5411. 99-101.
  • Fegelya, Jennifer F; Fish, Frank E; Xanthopoulosa, Cindy J. 1991. “Burst-and-coast swimming in schooling fish (Notemigonus crysoleucas) with implications for energy economy. Comparative biochemistry and physiology.” Vol. 100, Issue 3. 633.
  • Fryer, R.J; Gallego, A; Heath, M.R. 1995. “Premature schooling of larval herring in the presence of more advanced conspecifics.” Animal Behaviour. Vol. 50, Issue 2. 333
  • Gobet, F; Kendall, G; Ward, C.R. 2001. “Evolving Collective Behavior in an Artificial Ecology.” Artificial Life. Vol. 7, Issue 2. 191-209.
  • Griffiths, Si. 2003. “Learned recognition of conspecifics by fishes.” Fish and Fisheries. Vol. 4, Issue 3. 256.
  • Griffiths, Siân W; Magurran, Anne E. 1997. “Familiarity in schooling fish: how long does it take to acquire?” Animal Behavior. Vol 53, Issue 5. 945-949.
  • Griffiths, Siân W; Magurran, Anne E. 1998. “Sex and schooling behaviour in the Trinidadian guppy.” Animal Behaviour. Vol. 56, Issue 3. 689-693.
  • Grünbaum, Daniel; Parrish, Julia K; Viscidoa, Steven V. 2007. “Factors influencing the structure and maintenance of fish schools.” Ecological Modelling. Vol. 206, Num. 1-2. 153.
  • Gueron, Shay; Levin, Simon A; Rubenstein, Daniel I. 1996. “The Dynamics of Herds: From Individuals to Aggregations.” Journal of Theoretical Biology. Vol. 182, Num. 1. 85.
  • Guimaraes, Paulo, R. Jr. et al. 2007. “Investigating small fish schools: Selection of school—formation models by means of general linear models and numerical simulations.” Journal of Theoretical Biology. Vol. 245. Issue 4. 784-789.
  • Gunji, Yukio-Pegio. 1998. “Dual interaction producing both territorial and schooling behavior in fish.” Biosystems. Vol. 50, Issue 1. 27.
  • Hamilton, W.D. 1970. “Geometry for the Selfish Herd.” Journal of Theoretical Biology. Vol. 31. 295-311.
  • Hoare, D.J, et. al. 2004. “Context-dependent group size choice in fish.” Animal Behaviour. Vol. 167, Num. 1. 165.
  • Johnstone, A.D.F; Shelton, R.G.J. 1995. “Preliminary aquarium observations of the schooling behavior of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., smolts on transfer to sea water.” Fisheries Research. Vol. 24, Issue 1. 73-78.
  • Kaitala, V; Ranta, E. 2006. “School size affects individual feeding success in three-spined sticklebacks (Gastevosteus aculeatus L.)” Journal of Fish Biology. Vol. 39, Issue 5. 733-737.
  • Kelley, Jennifer L, et. al. 2003. “Back to school: can antipredator behaviour in guppies be enhanced through social learning?” Animal Behaviour. Vol. 65, Issue 4. 655.
  • Keenleyside, Miles H.A. 1955. “Some Aspects of the Schooling Behaviour of Fish.” Behaviour. Vol. 8, Num. 1. 183-247(65).
  • Kotchian, Nancy M; McFarland, William N. 1986. “Interaction between schools of fish and mysids.” Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. Vol. 11, Issue 2. 71-76.
  • Krause, et al. 2000. “Leadership in Fish Shoals.” Fish and Fisheries. Vol. 1. Issue 1. 82-89.
  • Lemasson, Bertrand H; Haefner, James W; Bowen, Mark W. 2008. “The effect of avoidance behavior on predicting fish passage rates through water diversion structures.” Ecological Modelling. Vol. 219. Issues 1-2. 178-188.
  • Levin, Luis E. 1996. “Passage order through different pathways in groups of schooling fish, and the diversified leadership hypothesis.” Behavioral Processes. Vol. 37. Num. 1. 1-8.
  • Magurran, A.E, et. al. 1992. “Behavioural Consequences of an Artificial Introduction of Guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in N. Trinidad: Evidence for the Evolution of Anti-Predator Behaviour in the Wild.” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. Vol. 248, Num. 1322. 1471-2954.
  • Magurran, A.E; Irving, P.W; Henderson, P.A. 1996. “Is there a Fish Alarm Pheromone? A Wild Study and Critique.” Proceedings of the Royal Society. Vol. 263. Num. 1376. 1551-1556.
  • Magurran, A.E; Pitcher, Tony; Winfield, I.J. 1982. “Fish in Larger Shoals Find Food Faster.” Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. Vol 10. Num. 2. 1432.
  • Magurran, Anne E; Seghers, Benoni H. 1994. “Predator Inspection Behaviour Covaries With Schooling Tendency Amongst Wild Guppy, Poecilia Reticulata, Populations in Trinidad.” Behaviour. Vol. 128, Num. 1-2. 121-134(14).
  • Magurran, Anne E; Seghers, Benoni H. 1994. “Sexual Conflict as a Consequence of Ecology: Evidence from Guppy, Poecilia reticulata, Populations in Trinidad.” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. Vol. 255, Num. 1342. 1471-2954.
  • Magurran, Anne E; Seghers, Benoni H. 1991. “Variation in Schooling and Aggression Amongst Guppy (Poecilia Reticulata) Populations in Trinidad.” Behaviour. Vol. 118, Num. 3-4. 214-234(21).
  • Moustakas, Aristitides; Silvert, William; Dimitromanolakis, Apostolos. 2006. “A spatially explicit learning model of migratory fish and fishers for evaluating closed areas.” Ecological Modelling. Vol. 192. Issues 1-2. 245-258.
  • Niwa, Hiro-Sato. 1998. “School Size Statistics of Fish.” Journal of Theoretical Biology. Vol. 195, Issue 3. 351.
  • Olla, Bori L; Ryer, Clifford H. 1990. “Agonistic behavior in a schooling fish: form, function and ontogeny.” Environmental Biology of Fishes. Vol. 31, Issue 4. 355-363.
  • Olla, Bori L; Ryer, Clifford H. 1991. “Information transfer and the facilitation and inhibition of feeding in a schooling fish.” Environmental Biology of Fishes. Vol. 30, Num. 3. 1573-5133.
  • Partridge, B.L; Pitcher, T.L. 1979. “Fish school density and volume.” Marine Biology. Vol. 54, Num. 4. 1432-1793.
  • Parrish, Julia K. 1991. “Do Predators 'Shape' Fish Schools: Interactions Between Predators and Their Schooling Prey.” Netherlands Journal of Zoology. Vol. 42, Num. 2-3. 358-370(13).
  • Pitcher, Tony. 1996. “Adaptive behaviour of herring schools in the Norwegian Sea as revealed by high-resolution sonar.” ICES Journal of Marine Science. Vol. 53, Issue 2. 449.
  • Pitcher, Tony. 1991. “Who Dares, Wins: the Function and Evolution of Predator Inspection Behaviour in Shoaling Fish.” Netherlands Journal of Zoology. Vol. 42, Num. 2-3. 371-391(21).
  • Ranta, E; Peuhkuri, N; Laurila, A. 1994. “A theoretical exploration of antipredatory and foraging factors promoting phenotype-assorted fish schools.” Ecoscience. Vol. 1, No. 2. 99-106.
  • Reebs, Stephan G. 2000. “Can a minority of informed leaders determine the foraging movements of a fish shoal?” Animal Behaviour. Vol. 59, Issue 2. 403.
  • Romey, William L. 1996. “Individual differences make a difference in the trajectories of simulated schools of fish.” Ecological Modelling. Vol. 92, Issue 1. 65-77.
  • Seghers, Benoni H. 1981. “Facultative schooling behavior in the spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius): possible costs and benefits.” Environmental Biology of Fishes. Vol. 6, Num. 1. 1573.
  • Skaret, Georg; Vabo, Rune. 2008. “Emerging school structures and collective dynamics in spawning herring: A simulation study.” Ecological Modelling. Vol. 214, Num. 2-4. 125.
  • Weihs, D. 1973. “Hydromechanics of Fish Schooling.” Letters to Nature. Volume 241. 290-291.
  • Wolf, NG. 1985. “Odd fish abandon mixed-species groups when threatened.” Journal Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. Vol. 17, Num. 1. 47-52.
  • Zheng, M, et al. 2005. “Behavior pattern (innate action) of individuals in fish schools generating efficient collective evasion from predation.” Journal of Theoretical Biology. Vol. 235, Issue 2. 153.

About the author

Aparna Bhaduri grew up in Wisconsin where she was an avid Green Bay Packers fan and loved biking. Upon coming to Rice University, she became interested in a variety of subjects, being involvemed with on campus research as well as the speech and debate team. Because of her diverse interests, she obtained a degree in both Biochemistry and Cell Biology as well as Political Science. She has chosen to pursue the scientist route and will be going to graduate school in cancer biology.

Questions & Answers

who was the first nanotechnologist
Lizzy Reply
k
Veysel
technologist's thinker father is Richard Feynman but the literature first user scientist Nario Tagunichi.
Veysel
Norio Taniguchi
puvananathan
Interesting
Andr
I need help
Richard
anyone have book of Abdel Salam Hamdy Makhlouf book in pdf Fundamentals of Nanoparticles: Classifications, Synthesis
Naeem Reply
what happen with The nano material on The deep space.?
pedro Reply
It could change the whole space science.
puvananathan
the characteristics of nano materials can be studied by solving which equation?
sibaram Reply
plz answer fast
sibaram
synthesis of nano materials by chemical reaction taking place in aqueous solvents under high temperature and pressure is call?
sibaram
hydrothermal synthesis
ISHFAQ
how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
is this allso about nanoscale material
Almas
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
William
currently
William
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
STM - Scanning Tunneling Microscope.
puvananathan
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get Jobilize Job Search Mobile App in your pocket Now!

Get it on Google Play Download on the App Store Now




Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask